Questioning by the teacher can open up the opportunity for students to reveal what they know. Questions also enable students to be challenged to explain their thinking (Black and Harrison 2004). Student questions can be equally essential and ultimately the autonomous student can steer their learning through their questions. The outdoor context is a fantastic stimulus, giving teachers and students the freedom to ask questions about science in the ‘real world’.
Question stems are a useful tool to encourage question formation for both teachers and students (Harrison and Howard 2009). Question stems need to provide open questions that prompt student thinking and consideration of alternative explanations. Stems that are used in these activities include: