The energy and enthusiasm of young children, when liberated, can enable them to be amazing explorers of their worlds. Observe that energy and enthusiasm and you can recognise the opportunities to develop children's learning alongside your own professional practice. This unit explores how teachers have supported the children in their classes to do just that and to build on the ideas that each child brings to the classroom. The unit explores three themes: ‘Exploratory Play’, ‘A Conversational Approach’ and ‘Emergence.’ Each theme is illustrated through the work of one school, each serving very different communities. The approach they use is part of their normal practice. You will see how children develop their thinking, their knowledge of science and their attitudes towards science. At the end of the themes you will find two sections – ‘Reflective Journeys’ describes how teachers have developed the approach in their own setting. ‘Developing Your Practice -Making a Difference’ suggests activities for you to help you on your way. The approaches illustrated have been developed from classroom based research in the ‘Teachers and Young Children Exploring their Worlds Together’ project, where the Science co-ordinator worked with an Early Years teacher. This project was funded by the AstraZeneca Science Teaching Trust. This unit has been created by Lynda Fletcher, Helen Clarke, Karen Phethean and Charly Ryan (Faculty of Education, University of Winchester in partnership with Amy Cox and Hilary Noble, Four Marks C of E Primary School Carol Brunner and Alison Windell, Nomansland and Hamptworth C of E Primary School Sharon Mordecai, Swanmore C of E Primary School. This unit complements the Teaching Science in the Foundation Stage unit.